Introduction: Carcinoma of the nasal is an infiltrating and destructive malignant epithelial tumor, with high potential for lymphatic and/or blood metastasizes. This is the first report of epidemiological features of skin cancer in this region. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and characteristics of nasal malignant neoplasms.
Material and methods: This is a retrospective study, concerning 330 patients diagnosed of skin cancer of the nose, which were treated and followed up at the National Center of Burns and plastic surgery, University Hospital, Casablanca, Morocco between January 2008 and December 2015. Epidemiological data, type and location of the neoplasm, treatment and results were collected and analyzed.
Results: There was a clear male patient’s predominance (79.5%). The mean age was 67.8 years. The nasal alae were the most frequent lesion location (39.8%), followed by the sidewalls (26.8%), dorsum (20.7%), and tip (12.6%). The most common histologic types were basal cell carcinoma lesion (n = 249), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (n = 51) and melanoma (n = 30), the tumorous excision was the rule among all our patients, with a wide safety margin. These margins were complete for 326 patients and incomplete for four patients. A cervical lymphadenectomy was performed among 61 patients.
The reconstruction was immediate in 98.8 % by Primary closure after mobilisation of soft tissue in 182 cases, full-thickness skin grafting in 36 patients, local flaps in 106 cases (Advancement flaps were used in 51 tumours, rotation flaps in 37, and transposition flaps in 20 tumours), and distant flaps in 4 cases. Adjuvant radiotherapy was indicated in complement treatment for 35 patients and was palliative for 22 others. The carcinological evolution was marked by Twenty-four recurrent lesions were identified at an average of 36 months. Five-year survival rate was 91%.
Conclusions: The therapeutic method consisting of excision and immediate reconstruction can be debatable. These results should bring us to envisage an extemporaneous study of the fragments as well as a temporization for the repair treatment.